Study Evaluates Forensic Photo Scales

Through the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, NIJ has made available a final technical report, Dimensional Review of Scales for Forensic Photography.


Massimiliano Ferrucci, Dimensional Metrology Group (DMG); Theodore D. Doiron, DMG; Robert Thompson, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); John P. Jones II, NIST; Susan M. Ballou, NIST; Janice A. Neiman, University of Delaware


The forensic science community recognizes the American Board of Forensic Odontology No. 2 Bitemark Scale as a reliable and accurate tool for providing a geometrical reference in the photographic documentation of evidence. However, studies of commercially available scales show a lack of both consistency in manufacturing processes and adherence to the standard. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of commercially available photo scales, document manufacturing processes and suggest pathways for establishing standards for forensic photo scales that will ensure accuracy and instill user confidence.

Download the report here

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Forensic Podiatry (Part Two of Two)

THE DISCIPLINE of forensic podiatry—or, in other words, the examination of pedal evidence—has progressed significantly over the past ten years. It is no longer a question of “What can you do with a footprint?” but rather, “Who can we use to evaluate the footprint?” Cases involving pedal evidence, especially bloody footprints and issues of determining shoe sizing or fit issues compared to questioned footwear, have become more common over the past two or three years.